Some notes:

  • Dream Teams was independently researched, edited, and independently fact checked. We tried very hard to make this completely accurate. But mistakes happen. So if you catch anything, I would love it you let me know so we can update future editions.

  • The Bibliography below contains Chicago Style formatting for the sources I cite in it. In the notes, I use a slightly more cowboy approach I call Shane Snow Style. :)

  • I’ll frequently introduce sources, especially interviews, in one section and then refer back to their work or information in their interviews later. If I’ve already introduced them in the notes below, I may not introduce them in the notes later.

  • If you want me to clarify anything that you can’t sort from these notes alone, contact me.

  • I typed up these end notes while on an incredibly long flight with the song “Shape of You” on repeat in my headphones. So if the words, “boy, let’s not talk too much” suddenly appear somewhere in here there’s a perfectly good reason why.



Balko, Radley. Rise of the warrior cop: the militarization of Americas police forces. Perseus Books Group, 2014.

Banaji, Mahzarin R., and Anthony G. Greenwald. Blindspot: hidden biases of good people. New York: Bantam Books, 2016.

Bassett-Jones, Nigel. "The Paradox of Diversity Management, Creativity and Innovation." Creativity and Innovation Management 14, no. 2 (2005): 169-75. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8691.00337.x.

Bly, Nellie. Ten days in a mad-house. United States: The Perfect Library, 2017.

Carville, James, and Mary Matalin. Love & war: twenty years, three presidents, two daughters and one Louisiana home. New York: Plume, 2015.

Ciani, Andrea S. Camperio, Claudio Capiluppi, Antonio Veronese, and Giuseppe Sartori. "The adaptive value of personality differences revealed by small island population dynamics." European Journal of Personality 21, no. 1 (2007): 3-22. doi:10.1002/per.595.

Crone, Rainer, and David Moos. Kazimir Malevich: the climax of disclosure. London: Reaktion Books, 2014.

Dane, Erik. "Reconsidering The Trade-Off Between Expertise And Flexibility: A Cognitive Entrenchment Perspective." Academy of Management Review 35, no. 4 (2010): 579-603. doi:10.5465/amr.2010.53502832.

Davé, Shilpa, LeiLani Nishime, and Tasha G. Oren. Global Asian American popular cultures. New York: New York University Press, 2016.

Davidson, Martin N. End of diversity as we know it: why diversity efforts fail and how leveraging difference can succeed. Ltd, 2012.

Davis, William C. The pirates Laffite: the treacherous world of the corsairs of the Gulf. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 2006.

Deffler, Samantha A., Mark R. Leary, and Rick H. Hoyle. "Knowing what you know: Intellectual humility and judgments of recognition memory." Personality and Individual Differences 96 (2016): 255-59. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.016.

Diggs, Robert F., and Chris Norris. The Wu-Tang manual. New York: Riverhead Books, 2005.

Djikic, Maja, Keith Oatley, and Mihnea C. Moldoveanu. "Opening the Closed Mind: The Effect of Exposure to Literature on the Need for Closure." Creativity Research Journal 25, no. 2 (2013): 149-54. doi:10.1080/10400419.2013.783735.

Faderman, Lillian. The gay revolution: the story of the struggle. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2016.

Gaertner, Samuel L., John F. Dovidio, Brenda S. Banker, Missy Houlette, Kelly M. Johnson, and Elizabeth A. Mcglynn. "Reducing intergroup conflict: From superordinate goals to decategorization, recategorization, and mutual differentiation." Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice 4, no. 1 (2000): 98-114. doi:10.1037//1089-2699.4.1.98.

Gilot, Françoise, and Carlton Lake. Life with Picasso. London: Virago, 1990.

Godart, F. C., W. W. Maddux, A. V. Shipilov, and A. D. Galinsky. "Fashion with a Foreign Flair: Professional Experiences Abroad Facilitate the Creative Innovations of Organizations." Academy of Management Journal 58, no. 1 (2014): 195-220. doi:10.5465/amj.2012.0575.

Goldblatt, David. The ball is round: a global history of football. New York: Riverhead Books, 2008.

Groom, Winston. Patriotic fire: Andrew Jackson and Jean Laffite at the Battle of New Orleans. New York: Vintage Books, 2007.

Hare, William. "Helping Open-mindedness Flourish." Journal of Thought 46, no. 1-2 (2011): 9. doi:10.2307/jthought.46.1-2.9.

Harris, G. L. A. "Multiple Marginality." Administration & Society 45, no. 7 (2012): 775-808. doi:10.1177/0095399712445872.

Harrison, Laura A., Rene Hurlemann, and Ralph Adolphs. "An Enhanced Default Approach Bias Following Amygdala Lesions in Humans." Psychological Science 26, no. 10 (2015): 1543-555. doi:10.1177/0956797615583804.

Hunt, Martin F., and Gerald R. Miller. "Open- and closed-mindedness, belief-discrepant communication behvior, and tolerance for cognitive inconsistency." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 8, no. 1, Pt.1 (1968): 35-37. doi:10.1037/h0021238.

Hur, Yongbeom. "Racial diversity, is it a blessing to an organization? Examining its organizational consequences in municipal police departments." International Review of Administrative Sciences 79, no. 1 (2013): 149-64. doi:10.1177/0020852312467613.

Jansen, Arne, Nicky Sulmon, Maarten Van Mechelen, Bieke Zaman, Jeroen Vanattenhoven, and Dirk De Grooff. "Beyond the familiar?" CHI 13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems on - CHI EA 13, 2013. doi:10.1145/2468356.2468596.

Komorita, S. S., and David A. Kravitz. "Coalition Formation: A Social Psychological Approach." Basic Group Processes, 1983, 179-203. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-5578-9_8.

Kroeger, Brooke. Nellie Bly: Daredevil. Reporter. Feminist. 1994.

Kruglanski, Arie W., and Lauren M. Boyatzi. "The Psychology Of Closed And Open Mindedness, Rationality, And Democracy." Critical Review 24, no. 2 (2012): 217-32. doi:10.1080/08913811.2012.711023.

Krumrei-Mancuso, Elizabeth J. "Intellectual humility and prosocial values: Direct and mediated effects." The Journal of Positive Psychology 12, no. 1 (2016): 13-28. doi:10.1080/17439760.2016.1167938.

Krumrei-Mancuso, Elizabeth J., and Steven V. Rouse. "The Development and Validation of the Comprehensive Intellectual Humility Scale." Journal of Personality Assessment 98, no. 2 (2015): 209-21. doi:10.1080/00223891.2015.1068174.

Leslie, L. M., D. M. Mayer, and D. A. Kravitz. "The Stigma of Affirmative Action: A Stereotyping-Based Theory and Meta-Analytic Test of the Consequences for Performance." Academy of Management Journal 57, no. 4 (2013): 964-89. doi:10.5465/amj.2011.0940.

Maddux, William W., Hajo Adam, and Adam D. Galinsky. "When in Rome ... Learn Why the Romans Do What They Do: How Multicultural Learning Experiences Facilitate Creativity." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 36, no. 6 (2010): 731-41. doi:10.1177/0146167210367786.

Marable, Manning. Malcolm X a life of reinvention. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 2012.

Mueller, Jennifer S., Jack A. Goncalo, and Dishan Kamdar.

Mueller, Jennifer S., Jack A. Goncalo, and Dishan Kamdar. "Recognizing creative leadership: Can creative idea expression negatively relate to perceptions of leadership potential?" Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 47, no. 2 (2011): 494-98. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2010.11.010.

Naff, Katherine C., and J. Edward Kellough. "Ensuring Employment Equity: Are Federal Diversity Programs Making a Difference?" International Journal of Public Administration 26, no. 12 (2003): 1307-336. doi:10.1081/pad-120024399.

Nemeth, Charlan Jeane. "Minority Influence Theory." Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology: 362-78. doi:10.4135/9781446249222.n44.

Nemeth, Charlan Jeanne, Marie Personnaz, Bernard Personnaz, and Jack A. Goncalo. "The Liberating Role of Conflict in Group Creativity: A Cross Cultural Study." SSRN Electronic Journal, 2003. doi:10.2139/ssrn.440663.

Nemeth, Charlan Jeanne. "Jury Trials: Psychology And Law." Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Volume 14, 1981, 309-67. doi:10.1016/s0065-2601(08)60375-5.

Nemeth, Charlan Jeanne. "Managing Innovation: When Less is More." California Management Review 40, no. 1 (1997): 59-74. doi:10.2307/41165922.

Page, Scott E. The difference: how the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.

Pinkerton, Allan, Norman B. Judd, and Norma B. Cuthbert. Lincoln and the Baltimore plot: 1861, from Pinkerton records and related papers. Edited by Norma B. Cuthbert. San Marine: The Huntington library, 1949.

Priem, Richard L. "Top management team group factors, consensus, and firm performance." Strategic Management Journal 11, no. 6 (1990): 469-78. doi:10.1002/smj.4250110605.

Provine, Robert R. Laughter: a scientific investigation. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 2001.

Rath, Tom, and Marcus Buckingham. StrengthsFinder 2.0. New York: Gallup Press, 2007.

Red Army. 2014.

Rein, Raanan. Fútbol, Jews, and the making of Argentina. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2015.

Rowatt, Wade C., Christie Powers, Valerie Targhetta, Jessamy Comer, Stephanie Kennedy, and Jordan Labouff. "Development and initial validation of an implicit measure of humility relative to arrogance." The Journal of Positive Psychology 1, no. 4 (2006): 198-211. doi:10.1080/17439760600885671.

Rza, and Chris Norris. The Tao of Wu. New York: Penguin Group, 2010.

Sabharwal, Meghna. "Is Diversity Management Sufficient? Organizational Inclusion to Further Performance." Public Personnel Management 43, no. 2 (2014): 197-217. doi:10.1177/0091026014522202.

Schiappa, Edward, Peter B. Gregg, and Dean E. Hewes. "The Parasocial Contact Hypothesis." Communication Monographs 72, no. 1 (2005): 92-115. doi:10.1080/0363775052000342544.

Shenk, Joshua Wolf. Powers of two: how relationships drive creativity. Boston: Mariner Books/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014.

Simmons, Bill, and Malcolm Gladwell. The book of basketball: the NBA according to the sports guy. New York: Random House, 2011.

Smith, Jeremy Adam, Jason Marsh, and Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton. Are We Born Racist?: New Insights from Neuroscience and Positive Psychology. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2010.

Steele, Claude. Whistling Vivaldi: and other clues to how stereotypes affect us. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2011.

Tadmor, Carmit T., Adam D. Galinsky, and William W. Maddux. "Getting the most out of living abroad: Biculturalism and integrative complexity as key drivers of creative and professional success." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 103, no. 3 (2012): 520-42. doi:10.1037/a0029360.

Tadmor, Carmit T., Melody M. Chao, Ying-Yi Hong, and Jeffrey T. Polzer. "Not Just for Stereotyping Anymore." Psychological Science 24, no. 1 (2012): 99-105. doi:10.1177/0956797612452570.

Takei, George. Oh myyy!: there goes the Internet. New York, NY: Oh Myyy! Limited Liability Company, 2013.

Takei, George. To the stars: the autobiography of George Takei, Star Treks Mr. Sulu. New York: Archway Paperback, 1995.

The DaimlerChrysler Merger. Report. Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College. 2002.

Thompson, Leigh L. Creative conspiracy: the new rules of breakthrough collaboration. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press, 2013.

To be Takei. 2014.


Wu, Ellen D. The color of success: Asian Americans and the origins of model minority. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014.

X, Malcolm, Alex Haley, Attallah Shabazz, M. S. Handler, and Ossie Davis. The autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Ballantine Books, 2015.

Zak, Paul J. The moral molecule: the source of love and prosperity. New York: Dutton, 2013.

Zak, Paul J. The trust factor: the science of creating high-performance companies. New York, NY: American Management Association, 2017.


Chapter Notes



Much of the information in this section came directly from the following:

“Wayne Gretzky would tell Sports Illustrated that the Russians simply “dismantled” him”

“Devils Hit A Drought In Scoring”

“When Ronald Reagan referred to the Soviets as ‘monsters’” and other things:

“We will bury you”

“Scientists from Russia and America had to get along”

“Physically speaking, we are built for collaboration”

“Virtually all of the stud- ies unambiguously reveal that individuals outperform teams in terms of both quantity and quality”

  • Leigh Thompson, author of The Creative Conspiracy

“Business people must be insane to use brainstorming groups.”

  • My favorite article that explains Dr. Adrian Furnham's quotation here is this one.

“We pull a little less hard on the tug-of-war rope”;

“We should only 74 percent as loud in a group”

  • Original study:

  • Great article:

“Statisticians who study team sports data at a granular level find that the proportion of ‘elite athletes’...”

  • The Captain Class, by Sam Walker



The story of the Baltimore Plot:

  • Lincoln and the Baltimore Plot, by Norma B. Cuthbert (compiled from Allan Pinkerton's journals)

  • Pinkerton Government Services. E.g.



The J. Edgar Hoover quote comes from this FBI Memorandum:




Kate Warne was the first female detective we know about…


When women were first allowed to join police departments:


When the FBI hired its first woman agent:


Only 15 percent of active duty police officers were female in 2017:

Only 20 percent of FBI agents were female in 2017:

“Half of criminal justice students in college are women.”:

CDC findings on men’s strength vs women’s:

“The Special Agent in his appearance, approach, and conduct must create the impression to his adversary that among other qualities he is intrepid, forceful, aggressive, dominant, and resolute,” Hoover wrote.:

  • ibid. Hoover quote above.



Various information in this section came directly from the following:

  • Chris Jung, former FBI agent/markswoman

The Passaic River has been full of garbage:


A great primer on Mafia families in the 1970s:

No, Lombardi is not a euphemism for this guy:

(I don’t think, at least. Would be a really lucky guess, if so!)


Various information in this section came directly from the following:

  • Former FBI assistant director Janice Fedarcyk

  • Former ATF assistant director Kathleen Kiernan

  • NYPD homicide detective Denise Thomas

Women make up 12 percent of cops but 2 percent of police shootings; Female officers are eight times less likely to use excessive force than male officers:

Back when JAY-Z was there selling crack:





Various information in this section came directly from the following:

  • Dr. Scott Page, professor of complex systems at University of Michigan, and his book The Difference

  • Keith Yamashita, founder of SYPartners.

“When you ask tall people what makes for a good airline, most of them will tell you ‘legroom,’ while short peo- ple will tell you ‘elbow room.’”; The Tom Hanks / Denzel stats:

  • This comes from a 2016 SurveyMonkey study I conducted of 520 US adults.

“Ne plus ultra”

  • My favorite latin phrase. Fun fact, I tried really hard to name the book this.

“I’ve learned that once in a while a team needs a guy with a good heuristic for kicking down a door.”

  • My buddy JoeLo did this once and it was AWESOME

People use “diversity” as a euphemism for race when they are too scared to say “race”

“A 2016 study by Pew Research Center found that only 8 percent of Caucasians talk directly about race on social media, while black social media users talk about it four times as much.”




The 2013 study that got 186 American Republicans and Democrats to read a murder mystery and the cognitive action conclusions come from this; “Simply interacting with individuals who are di erent forces group members to prepare better…”

  • From studies and article by Katherine W. Phillips:

“The more diverse thinkers in a company’s higher ranks, especially its boardroom, the more likely it is to come up with strategies that turn higher pro ts and avoid making stupid mistakes—like buying bad companies.”

“Other factors that lead to fewer wrongful police shootings and bad business deals, according to various studies: having a mix of age diversity in the room, having a mix of straight and openly gay team members, and having people who are both parents and not each increases such groups’ chances of better decisions.”



“How Lincoln convinced his biggest ideological rivals to work with him in the White House has been well chronicled in books and films.”



“At the time of this writing, Lincoln was also the first of two US presidents known to have impersonated a hancicapped person.”

“F. Scott Fitzgerald famously declared, “The test of a first-rate intelligence is the ability to hold two opposing ideas in mind at the same time.”



The Daimler-Chrylser story comes from these sources:

Harvard Business Review: most company mergers fail to achieve synergy:

“At the time of this writing, 90 percent of Fortune 500 companies had hired a head “diversity officer”

  • I just looked at all of their websites and LinkedIn pages. It was a HUGE pain. While I was at it, I also looked up each company’s corporate values statement and mission statement, if any.

“In a sweeping study for the Strategic Management Journal. Adds Dr. Nigel Bassett-Jones of Oxford Brookes University, “Heterogeneous groups experience more conflict, higher turnover, less social integration and more problems with communication.”


“A review of seven hundred US companies by Harvard professors concluded that not only did most demographic diversity programs have no positive effect, but many made things worse for minorities.”

“Research on government diversity hiring programs found no evidence that they “created a more equitable work environment for women or people of color.””

“research from Portland State University found that assigning only minorities to run “diversity management” programs “further marginalizes these already marginalized groups.””

“On a civic level, a study by the Harvard political scientist Robert Putnam shows us that the greater a town’s or country’s ethnic diversity, the fewer people voted or volunteered.”


“follow-on research shows that this social trust is a more powerful predictor of economic growth than levels of human capital or skills.”



  • Real sound I made out loud.

“a study of 464 police departments across America found that the departments with the most racial diversity had the most oficers be fired or quit.”

Note that Chrysler was restructured through that bankruptcy and still exists in the form of a subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.


2.2, 2.3

Various information in these sections came directly from the following:

  • The Tao of Wu, by The RZA

  • The Wu-Tang Manual, by The RZA

  • Raekwon the Chef



This section comes directly from an interview at RapGenius (now Genius) HQ with Andre Torres (now at Universal) and Rob Markman.



In addition to citing previous sources, various information for this section came directly from the following:

  • Who We Be, by Jeff Chang

  • Jeff Chang himself

Wu-Tang’s struggle and success:



Tupac & Biggie murdered:


The Wright Brothers stuff:

Wu-Tang discography and lyrics:




In addition to citing previous sources, various information for this section came directly from the following:

  • Interview with bank director (name withheld)

  • My 2016 study

  • The previous Daimler-Chrysler studies

Gottman Institute: ““Interaction patterns, such as disagreement and anger exchanges… may not be harmful in the long run.””


“a group of researchers from Harvard, Berkeley, and University of Minnesota decided that they wanted to know just how much training people to be mindful of demographic diversity helped big companies with lots of employees. So they found 829 businesses that emphasized diversity training and tracked how they fared over a period of thirty-one years. In 2007 they published their surprising results. That is, that so-called diversity training programs had “no positive effects in the average workplace.” In fact, they found “in firms where training is mandatory or emphasizes the threat of lawsuits, training actually has negative effects.””; “Then in a 2015 experiment, another group of professors took a group of white men who were applying for an IT job, and separated them into two groups. Before the job interview, they told half of the men about the great e orts the company they were applying to used to focus on racial diversity. The other half weren’t told anything about that. The job applicants who’d gotten the diversity message did worse in their job interviews. Their heart rates rose. Tghey were more nervous. They talked less. Talking about race differences made them freeze up.”

  • Studies cited here with supporting context:

University of Athens “organizational silence” study:


Arthur Schlesinger quote “I bitterly reproached myself…”

  • From A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House, By Arthur Meier Schlesinger



In addition to citing previous sources, various information for this section came directly from the following:

  • Sam Walker, WSJ editor and author of The Captain Class

Gallup: 40 percent of employees who are ignored are actively disengaged; “Having a manager who ignores you is even more detrimental than having a manager who primarily focuses on your weaknesses.”

  • StrengthsFinder 2.0 by Tom Rath



In addition to citing previous sources, information for this section came directly from the following:

  • Shaolin and Wu Tang, 1983



The Buenos Aires, declining anti-Semitism, and soccer stuff (which I wrote about in Buenos Aires!) primarily comes from the following, and sources quoted in them:

  • The Ball is Round, by David Goldblatt

  • Futbol, Jews, and the Making of Argentina, by Raanan Rein

“Are We Becoming A Semitic Republic?”

  • from Buenos Aires Herald, 1989


In-Group Psychology:

The amygdalae:

Definition of xenophobia:




In addition to citing previous sources, various information for this section came directly from the following:

  • Carol Vallone, CEO of ULT

  • Jeffrey Burgdorf, the Rat Tickler



In addition to citing previous sources, various information for this section came directly from the following:

  • A.J. Harbinger, founder of Art of Charm

Robert Zajonc study of the black bag, Mere Exposure:




In addition to citing previous sources, various information for this section came directly from the following:

  • Bonni Nardi’s book, My Life As Night Elf Priest

Johan Huizinga: play and the “magic circle”:


Brian Sutton-Smith: “play is a simulation of an anxiety attack”:

Jay Van Bavel: black and white faces study:

Gorillas play tag like human children:




“As Pisa Group researchers Daniela Antonacci, Ivan Norscia, and Elisabetta Palagi point out, play “leads to the direct inhibition and regulation of aggression, thus improving social integration.””




Maradona found himself awash in literal shit:

“Professor Miles Hewstone of Oxford Uni- versity found in a series of studies, city neighborhoods “with the most mixing between ethnic groups lead to the highest reductions in racial prejudice.””


“neighborhoods in the early-to-mid-twentieth century had less ethnic and racial segregation in Buenos Aires than any of its Brazilian, Chilean, or Mexican counterparts”

“Indeed, the country’s low black population is due in part to President Bartolomé Mitre’s racist policy of sending black men to die on the front lines during the Paraguayan War of 1865.”

Jewish populations in 2017:

2014 Pope Francis soccer tournament:


4.1, 4.3, 4.5, and part 1 of 4.7

Information for these sections came directly from the following:



Picasso’s depression and Gilot’s role:

Les Femmes d’Algier painting sold for $179 million:

Erik Dane & Cognitive Entrenchment:



In addition to citing previous sources, various information for this section came directly from the following:

  • Brian Millar of Sense Worldwide

“people who introduce creative ideas, according to research led by Jennifer Muel- ler of the University of Pennsylvania, are less likely to be listened to or made leaders.  at’s because “the expression of creative ideas is often associated with uncertainty.””



I cite research from various studies of Dr. Charlan Nemeth’s in this section and later:

  • Managing Innovation: When Less is More (Charlan Jeanne Nemeth, California Management Review)

  • Jury Trials: Psychology and Law (Charlan Nemeth)

  • Minority Influence Theory (Charlan Nemeth)

  • European Journal of Social Psychology The liberating role of conflict in group creativity: A study in two countries (CHARLAN J. NEMETH, BERNARD PERSONNAZ, MARIE PERSONNAZ AND JACK A. GONCALO)

The sorority and frat murder mystery study and conclusions:



In addition to citing previous sources, various information for this section came directly from the following:

  • HackerOne

  • DoD / Lisa Blackwell

The freedom of the press is granted by the US Constitution:

Bayard Rustin: “We need, in every community, a group of angelic troublemakers.”


5.1, 5.6

Information for this section came directly from the following:

Snippet from Dome Over Winooski song:




Information for this section came directly from the following:

Philip Shaw review of The Black Square:

Peter Schjeldahl review of Malevich:


Tatyana Tolstaya on The Black Square:




History of Graphic Design:

Ibid Dr. Page

University of Leuven in Belgium study on brainstorming with bizarre “inspirational material”:

  • Beyond the Familiar: Exploring Extreme Input in Brainstorms

P.S. The Bolshevik Revolution is summed up well in but I prefer China Mieville’s October for anyone who wants the straight dope narration of events.


6.1, 6.2, 6.4

This whole Jackson, Laffite, & the Battle of New Orleans thing comes from the following sources:

  • Patriotic Fire, by Winston Groom

  • The Pirates Laffite, by William C. Davis

  • Also special thanks to my girl Elisa Cool for initially getting me into this story.



Superordinate goals come from this study:

  • Reducing intergroup conflict: From superordinate goals to decategorization, recategorization, and mutual differentiation." Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice

Sanskrit proverb:



“Cultlike” values:

  • The pro argument comes from Jim Collins’ and Jerry Porras’ work in their book Built to Last and subsequent writings, though much of it has been conflated in business writing and punditry over the years. They actually talk about “cultlike cultures” and include “core values” under that umbrella, but it was the rest of the business world that conflated the two to much.

  • The con argument comes from Charlan Nemeth (ibid.) her research, cited above, shows that strict, shared values can be destructive to progress



The Robbers Cave experiment:

  • Ibid University of Delaware study, plus Muzafer Sherif’s 1961 study, which they cite frequently



The Malcolm X story comes from the following sources:

  • Manning Marable’s Pulitzer Prize-winning biography, The Reinventions of Malcolm X

  • Autobiography of Malcom X, as Told to Alex Haley




The Big Five:

Intellectual Humility:



Story of Saul becoming Paul:

Balance Theory:

“When psychologists put people in rooms and have them list arguments on both sides of a tricky issue—say, abortion or animal testing—people tend to list more arguments in favor of whichever side they believe in. But then when researchers prompt them, most people are able to come up with additional arguments for the opposing side without di culty. “It seems that individuals have these counter-arguments stored in memory but they don’t draw on them when first asked,” write researchers from University of Pennsylvania.”

The Derek Black story:




My IH assessment:

  • See 8.9

Dr. Galinsky research on travel, openness, and creativity:



“As linguist Gabrielle Hogan-Brun explains, “The left inferior parietal cortex—an area of the brain heavily involved in the processing of language, forming concepts, and thinking abstractly—is denser in bilinguals than monolinguals, and becomes denser as language proficiency increases.””




Dr. King started to incorporate Malcom’s thinking into his own:



The Takei story comes from the following sources:

  • Oh Myyy! There Goes The Internet, the book by George Takei

  • To The Stars: The Autobiography of George Takei, Star Trek’s Mr. Sulu

  • To Be Takei, the 2014 documentary

Asian American discrimination:

Executive Order 9066 and the internment of Japanese-Americans:

“Rohmer’s Sherlock to this Asian Moriarty is the hero detective Denis Nayland-Smith—Sir Denis Nayland-Smith, no less. Nayland-Smith is chiseled, brave, resourceful, and, of course, English.”

Henry Schwartz, senator of Wyoming during the Japanese internment of WWII:

Louis Capozzoli, representative of New York during the Japanese internment of WWII:



“No one can ever brainwash me to make me believe that Sugar Ray Robinson and Muhammad Ali was better than me.”

“I am the greatest athlete to live.”

“I run New York. I run this whole city.”

“I see me being a designer. I see me being a model. I see me being a TV star.”

“If you want to win, sometimes you have to have a difficult conversation with people . . . You know they are not going to like you, but you do it because you want what is best for the team.”

Mayweather punched his girlfriend and threatened her sons:

The sports team stuff comes from this:

  • The Captain Class, Ibid.



Asian-American earnings and success:

““Orientals” had “most of the vices and few of the virtues of the African,””

Model Minority myth:

  • The Color Of Success, by Ellen Wu

“Research from economists like Brown University’s Dr. Nathaniel Hilger shows that the real reason Asians started to do better in America was not because they suddenly got better family values, and not because they suddenly started working harder. Asians didn’t go from “lazy” to “responsible.” It was simply because America became less racist toward them.”

““Asian Americans—some of them at least—have made tremendous progress in the United States,” writes economics journalist Jeff Guo. “But the greatest thing that ever happened to them wasn’t that they studied hard, or that they benefited from tiger moms or Confucian values. It’s that other Americans started treating them with a little more respect.””



Gay rights:



Gay characters data:

  • IMDB

Gay mentions and slurs in scripts data:

  • Ben Schmidt’s and Erez Aidan’s Bookworm Project


8.6, 8.7

In addition to discussing my own experience in his lab, I refer to a bunch of different research items by Dr. Paul Zak in this section, all of which is explained and cited in these:

  • The Moral Molecule, by Paul Zak

  • Trust Factor, by Paul Zak

“Alexander Stevenson put it, “[Kurt] is not simply a statement or storyline or supporting character used to build up the diversity of the gang. He is a person.””


“A study by the Hollywood Reporter found that 27 percent of the Americans who watched Glee or Modern Family (starring two gay dads) directly credited the shows with helping them become more pro–gay rights.”

(The stats reported in this section are cited above in 7.4)

“The idea was that the Vietnamese, they weren’t really people.”; The atrocities that occurred in Vietnam War:

“No Vietcong ever called me nigger.”

Story/empathy studies by Lijiang Shen, PhD, at Penn State:

Robert Perez and inmates’ stories:

The Jonathan McBride / Blackrock stuff came from in-person interviews I conducted.



History of original Star Trek:



My IH study: Conducted with ~1,000 US adults via Surveymonkey surveys in 2017. Followed up with a 30,000-person Google survey in 2018 after the book’s publication—many details of which and follow-up material on intellectual humility you can find here.

Dr. Delia Baskerville of Victoria University research studies with school children and story time: